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Fundamentals of Leather Manufacturing

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Fundamentals of Leather Manufacturing

The title of this book expresses it’s scope. The objective is to provide the best interpretation of modern leather  manufacture based on our current scientific knowledge...


Fundamentals of Leather Manufacturing

Foreword and Introduction: The Need for this Treatise

The title of this book expresses it’s scope. The objective is to provide the best interpretation of modern leather  manufacture based on our current scientific knowledge. Each chapter attempts to sufficiently cover the theoretical and the practical aspects of each step in the process so far as our information withstands scientific scrutiny. \/\/e renounce completely the presentation of a series of recepies for different types of leathers. The authors devote their efforts to explain why leather is made in a certain way and to explain on the basis of scientific experimental  experience what will happens if any procedure in the process is changed. …



Heidemann Fundamentals

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Artikelnummer 000704122009
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Gewicht 1.139 kg
Abmessungen 22,3cm x 16,3cm x 3cm
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Buchtitel Fundamentals Leather Manufacturing
Autor Prof. Dr. E. Heidemann
Buchinformationen Fundamentals Leather Manufacturing
Sprache Englisch
ISBN 3 7929 0206 0
Erscheinungsjahr 1993
Verlag Eduard Roether KG Druckerei und Verlag, Darmstadt
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Fundamentals of Leather Manufacturing by Prof. Dr. E. Heidemann, Eduard Roether KG


Table of Contents:

  • Foreword and Introduction: The Need for this Treatise
  • The Organization and Technical Development of the Worldwide Leather Industry
  • Overview of the steps involved in Leather Production
  • Worldwide Hide and skin resources
  • The world leather industry
  • Distribution of tannery production
  • Government Interaction with the Tannery Business
  • Leather Trade in the World in Relation to the Structure of the Tanneries
  • Differences and Common Characteristics of Leather from Various Hides and Skins
  • Skins and Hides in the Leather industry, Structure and Composition
  • The fiber network and the collagenous elements
  • Hair and Wool
  • Hair follicles, Epidermis and Basal membrane
  • Elastin fibers
  • The carbohydrate compounds in the matrix of the hide connective tissue
  • The melanins
  • Collagen Chemistry
  • Collagen Types and Locations
  • Chemical Composition, Primary Structure and Special Features
  • The Structure ofthe Triple Helix
  • Medium and Small-angle Structures
  • Biosynthesis
  • Helix Coil Transition, Denaturation, Melting, Shrinkage
  • Arrangement of Collagen Molecules into Fibrils and into a Fiber Network
  • Natural Crosslinks
  • Formation and Structure of Natural Fibers
  • Enzymatic Decomposition of Collagen, Skins and Hides
  • Fibernetwork mechanics of hides and skins
  • Preservation and Beamhouse Work
  • The Impact of the Condition of the Raw Hide on Beamhouse Operations
  • Hide and Skin Unhairing
  • Swelling and Deswelling
  • Hide and Skin purification, decomposition, and hide structure opening
  • Materials made from Collagenous Tissues by Mechanical and Chemical Treatment
  • General Remarks
  • Prepared Hidepieces
  • Hide Powder
  • Leather Fiber Products, Leather Fiber Boards
  • Sausage Casings
  • Collagen Foams
  • Fiber Suspensions - Collagen Solutions
  • Collagen Hydrolysates
  • Gelatine and Glue Production
  • Low Grade Materials Made From Proteinous Offals of the Tanneries
  • Chemical Modifications, Chemical Cleavage, Gralting and Fixing on Supports from Hides, Hide Fibers and Gelatine Including Graft Polymerisation
  • Modification of the Epsylon Aminogroup of Lysine
  • Guanidylation and Deguanidylation of Proteins
  • Modifications Proved with Hide Powder
  • Reaction with Double Bond Compounds
  • Reaction with Aldehydes, with Mannich and Michael Reacting Agents
  • Modification at the Carboxylgroups
  • Graft Polymerisation
  • Sulfur Modification
  • Covalent Coupling on Collagen
  • Specific Cleavage Reactions of Collagen
  • The Principle of Binding Mechanism, Binding Forces of Chemical Compounds on Collagen
  • Charge-charge interactions
  • The isoelectric Point is a most Eftectful Magnitude
  • The Isoelectric Point is the pH with the Netto Charge Zero
  • The Charge Binding Principle
  • Does a Binding Stoichiometry Exist?
  • Hydrogene Bonds
  • Dipol Forces
  • Hydropholoic Forces
  • Complex Formation
  • Covalent Bonds
  • Practical and Theoretical Aspects of Tanning
  • General Remarks
  • Tanning Characteristics
  • Chrome Tannages and Non-Chrome Tannages
  • Proposals in the Literature for Tan Measuring
  • Penetration at Tanning, Retanning and other Wetprocesses
  • Crosslinking and Tanning
  • The Melting Phenomenon
  • The Bonding Fastness, the Bonding Extent
  • Measuring the Shrinkage Temperature
  • Measuring ot isometric Tension
  • Calculations of Cooperative Length Between Crosslinks
  • Locations ot Chrome Fixation
  • The Tanning Degree is a most Important Factor to Influence the Leather Properties
  • Tanning with Metal Salts
  • The practical background of chrome tanning
  • isolation of Compounds by ion exchange chromatography and determination of composition ilectrophoresis Spectrophotometry
  • investigation into the mechanism ofcomp/ex growth
  • Exchange of ligands in chromium
  • Evaluation ofthe action of masking acids in practical tanning
  • Reduction ofthe chrome ofter and chrome substitution
  • Recycling chrome tanning liquors
  • Detanning chrome leather
  • Tanning with aluminium salts
  • Zirconium tannage
  • Titanium tannage
  • Iron tannage
  • Covalent Reaction with Aldehydes, Epoxydes, Halogen Compounds and other
  • Reactive Organic Coumpounds
  • Formaldlehydes as Tan
  • Glutaraldehyde Tanning
  • Mono- and Diisocyanate Tanning
  • Epoxyde Tanning
  • Chinone Tanning
  • Tanning with Aliphatic Sulfochlorides
  • Different Types ot Aldehydes with Minor importance
  • Tanning with Organic Macromolecules
  • The Practical and Theoretical Aspects of Vegetable Tanning
  • Source and Structure of Vegetable Tannins
  • Properties of the Tannins, l\/lethods of Production and Modification
  • Description of Syntans; Structure, Production and Properties
  • Tanning of Vegetable Tanned Leather
  • Tannins with Reduced Tanning Capacity
  • Cationic Amino Resins as Tanning Agents
  • Polyacrylates as Tanning Agents
  • Polyurethanes as Tanning Agents
  • lVletallo-Syntans as Pretanning Agents
  • Retanning ot Chrome Tanned Leather
  • Shrunken Grain Tannage
  • White Leather Tanning
  • Leather Dyeing: Fastness of Leather Dyes
  • General Remarks
  • Dyestufts for Leather Classes and Structures
  • Aspects of the Affinity of Dyestuffs to Leather
  • The Influence of Retanning on Dye Affinity
  • Further Influences
  • Practical Aspects in the Dyehouse
  • Fastness Properties in Respect to the Color
  • Color Matching
  • Interaction with Fat, Grease Penetration, Degreasing
  • Hydrophylic-Hydrophobic Character of Hide and Leather
  • Conditions for Lubricating the Leather Fiber Network, Experiments to Evaluate the Locality of Fat Deposition in the Collagene Fiber Structure
  • Surview ofthe Conditions to be a Leather Lubricant
  • The Fat Raw Stock
  • Methods of Modification of Fat Compounds
  • Surface Active Agents used in Leather lndustry
  • Analytical Methods for Surfactants
  • Practical Experiences with Fat Binding and Distribution
  • A Great Number of Facts Influence the Fat Distribution
  • Chargetype of the Emulsifier and Fat Fixation
  • The Reaction of some Leather Properties and the Fatliquoring
  • How are Technical Fatliquor Products made?
  • Hydrophobisation of Leather
  • Degreasing of Pelts and Leathers
  • Machine Work in Tannery - Mechanical Treatment of Hides and Skins, of Pelts and of Leathers Surview
  • Process control in drum work
  • The Continous Flow Unhairing, the Darmstadt Principle
  • Injection Technique
  • Foulard-Process
  • Fast Processes from the Opening to Wet Blue with Splittecl Pelts in the
  • Hanging Continous Flow System
  • Speeding up Vegetable Tanning
  • The Coretan-Hagspiel-Drum, the Y Shaped System
  • The Behaviour of Pelts and Leather under the Pressure of Machines with Knife Cylinders
  • Drying of Leather, a Fundamental Understanding of the Leather Fiber
  • Air as Carrier for Water
  • The Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium State of Leather with the Air
  • The Viewpoint of Drying Energy
  • The Sequence of Air Saturation and Temperature Adaptation
  • The Principles of Dryer Construction
  • The Influence of Humidity of the Air on Leather Shrinkage during Drying
  • The Influence of Temperature on the Leather at Drying
  • Technical drying methods
  • Subsequent Treatments
  • Finishing
  • introduction, History of Finishing
  • State of Art of Different Finished Leathers
  • Dimensions of the Finish as a Protecting Layer
  • Chemical Structure of Binders and its Characteristical Properties
  • Composition of Coating Liquors
  • Waterbased Finish
  • Adhesion of the Coat
  • Properties of the Finish and its Testing
  • Remarks on Leather Testing and Laboratories Technique in Leather Research
  • General Remarks on Testing of Leather
  • Test Organisations
  • Standardisation of Tests
  • Standard Methods
  • Leather Chemicals Testing
  • High Performance Analytical Equipment
  • Disposing of Offals Versus Clean Technology, two Ways to Cope the Environment challenge


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